Digestive system: function, Meaning of Digestive System
We need nutrients for the growth and structural functions of cell life. After many changes in the food we consume, it is absorbed by the cells, so we can say that after chemical and physical changes in the food, it turns into simple substances.
These simple substances are the food of our cells, which they absorb inside themselves. These substances get digested and enter the blood, and strengthen the body.
The material that is not digested is expelled from the body. The group of organs which help in running the digestive system smoothly is called ‘the digestive system’ or ‘digestive system.
Every food taken by us is used by the body only after its digestion. There is a long tube-like structure in our body from mouth to anus for digestion; Which is called the ‘alimentary canal’.
Whose length is about 9 meters?
The alimentary canal consists of various parts, which collectively form a ‘digestive system’. There are five main parts of the human alimentary canal, which are as follows
1. Mouth and Oral Cavity
Mouth and oral cavity
Our mouth opens into the oral cavity. There is a mouth cavity surrounded by both cheeks and surrounded by jaws. It has an upturned palate.
At the end of the palate, there is a soft ‘cork’ in the form of a pendant. Here and there there are tonsils in the form of knots, which open behind the lips and in other places in the oral cavity.
There are a total of 32 teeth in both the jaws.
The small Gallbladder intestine is a digestive wicker ‘tylin’ in saliva.
Food converted into pulp by saliva :
Duodiomame. Are being given.
The back part of the pharynx mouth cavity is 12 to 15 cm. The longer part opens into the pharynx. It consists of three parts, which are as follows
(i) The nasopharynx is situated behind the respiratory tract.
(ii) The larynx is the pharynx where the airway and alimentary canal intersect.
(iii) Mouth pharynx The posterior part of the pharynx just in front opens into the ‘esophagus
Well-chewed food is transported to the esophagus by the tongue. The trachea is also near the food pipe. To prevent food from entering the windpipe,
there is an organ called a sub-tongue. If food enters the windpipe, a cough occurs, and the cough itself expels the food.
Food is pushed forward through the esophagus and with the help of muscles, food is pushed forward. Esophagus is also called the ‘Esophagus’.
The esophagus is narrow and about 25 cm. Opens. The wall of the esophagus is thick and muscular.
Stomach- It is a muscular organ like a bag situated under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. Its length is about 24 cm. And width 10 cm. it occurs.
The initial part of the stomach is relatively broad and the back part is narrow. It is divided into three parts respectively ‘Cardiac’, ‘Fundic’ and ‘Pyloric’. In these, there is a ‘gastric gland’ on the inner surface, which secretes gastric juice.
The wall of the stomach is thick glandular and muscular. Circular, longitudinal, and oblique muscles are found in it.
Intestine- The remaining part of the highly coiled alimentary canal surrounding the entire abdominal cavity behind the stomach is called the intestine, it has two main parts- small intestine and large intestine.
The small intestine is about 6 m. It is long. Digestion and absorption of food take place in the small intestine. Its next part is called ‘duodenal’, which is 25 cm. It is long.
It forms an almost ‘C’ shape with the stomach. There is a gland called ‘the pancreas’ between its folded part and the stomach. In the duodenum, the ‘bile duct’ and ‘pancreatic duct’ open, which bring bile juice from the ‘liver’ (the largest gland of the body).
Its middle part is called ‘jejunum’. Are. It is about 2.5 m. long and 4 cm. It is a wide pipe. It is highly coiled. The remaining and third part of the small intestine is called the ‘Ileum’. Which is about 2.75 m. long and 3.5 cm. It is a broad convoluted tube.
Except for the duodenum in the small intestine, innumerable small finger-like protrusions, which are called ‘Rasankur’, hang down in the remaining part.
In between these, there are ‘intestinal glands’ that secrete ‘intestinal juice’.Rasankur performs the function of absorption of food. Here the digestion of food gets completed.
After the small intestine, the remaining part of the alimentary canal is called the ‘large intestine’. It is relatively small and wide. It consists of the following three parts.
1. Cecum,t tç, It is about 6 cm. long and 7.5 cm. It is a broad sac-like structure. It has 9 cm. A long-closed tube is attached. Which is called ‘appendix’.
2. Colon- It is about 1.25 cm. long, 6 cm. There is a wide tube, which is ‘U’. Its end moves a little to the left and opens into the ‘rectum’ (rectum). encircles the small intestine
3, the rectum is about 12 cm. long and 4 cm. It is wide. It’s 3 to 4 cm. The long narrow part opens out of the body by the last ‘anus’ or ‘. anus ‘. Its wall has contractile muscles
Water is absorbed in the large intestine and undigested food matter (feces) is stored. other organs of the digestive system,
which are outside the alimentary canal; These are respectively salivary glands, teeth, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen, etc.