Human environment interactions
In this article, we will read in detail about settlement, transport, and telecommunication. In most ancient times, human beings remained in nomadic conditions like nomads.
Gradually he organized his life through many inventions, such as fire, metal, wheels, agriculture, etc. In this way, he developed the qualities of cooperation
and brotherhood and while progressing continuously, in the 20th century, science and technology came to a highly developed state.
The settlement means a collective human habitation area which may be in the form of a village, town, or large city. With time and circumstances, a small settlement can take the form of a big city. There are mainly two types of settlements, rural and urban.
A rural settlement is an integrated structure of houses and roads, mostly inhabited by agricultural people. There is land worth plowing around this settlement. The population in the rural settlements is very less.
The urban settlement is a complex structure of houses, roads, shops, etc. Its form is completely different from rural settlements. Urban settlements are mainly inhabited by people who do secondary and regional occupations;
Such as industry, trade, transport, and service. The population of urban settlements can vary from a few thousand to lakhs and crores. Settlements are gaining importance in the modern era because suitable facilities are available here.
People migrate from rural settlements to urban settlements due to employment and facilities and the pressure on urban settlements keeps on increasing all the time.
Therefore the lives of people living in big cities are often adversely affected by population, industry, transport, and other factors. It only shows a lack of planning.
Settlement human environment
Thus, a rural or urban settlement is a mass of inhabited houses. The study of settlement has a special importance in human geography. Different countries follow different criteria to designate a settlement as rural or urban.
But in most countries, the size of the population, economic activities, and type of administration form the basis of differentiating rural settlement from urban settlement.
Other Forms of Settlement
Nucleated or Clustered Pattern
In this form, the houses are very close to each other and are built in a dense manner. Water sources, the need for security, collective comfort, and profit are the main reasons for its growth.
Scattered or Sprawled Settlement –
Sprawled settlements in areas with less population, valleys, or below hills occur. Here the buildings are far away from each other. They are almost alone. There they are on big agriculture. Linear or Ribboned Pattern
When houses or buildings are along a road, canal, river, or railway line, such a settlement is called a linear settlement.
In this the houses or buildings have a central place; For example, the source of water spreads outwards from the temple or crossroads.
Here two or more roads cross each other and the houses are in a rectangular shape.
These are made by the government with the help of architects. Examples of these cities are Canberra (the capital of Australia) and Chandigarh (the capital of Punjab and Haryana).
Causes of Development of Settlement
Factors Affecting Settlement
1. Different elements of the environment; Like land, soil, water, organisms, animals, minerals, etc. affect the human settlement.
2. Climate factors like temperature, rainfall, evaporation, etc. also affect human settlement. The effect of climate on houses depends on the type of houses and the materials used. Houses in a hot desert are built with mud walls and flat roofs.
The thick mud walls keep the house cool during the day because mud is a bad conductor of heat. In areas of heavy rainfall, the houses have thatched roofs which let the rainwater down
immediately but in a well-planned and clean city or town, the buildings may be made of glass or other materials. Glass lets light into the building and keeps dust out.
Iron and cement house
The use of cement and steel bars has revolutionized the art of building houses and multi-story buildings. The discovery of fire taught the use of burnt bricks.
The discovery of metal and the use of metal tools helped man to make wooden frames and strong roofs. Local building materials are still used to make cheap houses.
Red stone is one such material that is used in Rajasthan and surrounding areas for making roofs. This stone can also be cut into sheets. In northern Europe, houses built in older areas face south,
which is warmer. Their windows are large and made of glass so that maximum sunlight can enter the house.
Airships have a long history, from prehistoric fleets to modern wind-powered aircraft. For centuries the only means of movement were walking or riding animals.
The invention of the wheel and the development of wheeled vehicles before 3500 BC brought a revolution. The development of the steam engine was followed by the electric in the 18th century and the internal combustion engine in the late 19th century.
Types of Transport
Geographically three types of transport are currently available:
i- Roadways: This is the main mode of transport for short distances. Roads lead from farms to distant factories and markets. Goods can be delivered to the consumer’s home. Roads are more profitable than other modes of transport as they can be made to hilly and remote places.
The distribution of roadways is uneven in the world. developed countries; For example, a planned network of roadways is seen in America, Germany, Russia, etc.
ii- Railways: With the introduction of railways, transportation became very easy. Railways, a means of rapid transport, can carry more loads than roadways.
India’s first railway route was laid from Mumbai to Thane in 1853. At present India has a rail route of 108,706 km. All major cities are connected by rapid trains.
The railway is a product of the industrial revolution. Railways have contributed to transportation from one place to another. But the railways cannot go to the doorstep of the consumer. The longest railway route in the world is the Trans-Siberian Railway which is in Russia.
It is one of the oldest means of transport. Water transport can be divided into two groups:
(i) Inland Waterways It is the cheapest mode of transport and especially heavy goods; Such as coal, iron ore, wood, etc. suitable for transportation. Rivers, canals, and lakes are the main means of inland waterways.
Inland waterways cause less pollution than other modes of transport. Amazon, Zaire, Niger, Ganga, Renew Danube, Flee, and Mississippi are the main rivers of the world that are used for internal waterways.
(ii) Ocean Routes Oceans provide cheap and easy transport. Most of the world’s trade is done through the oceanic route. The main ocean routes of the world are :
1. North Atlantic Route
2. Suez Canal Route
3. Cape of Good Hope Route
4. Pacific Ocean Route
5. South Atlantic Route
6. Panama Canal Route
It has opened a shorter route to Europe, East Africa, and Asia. Prior to this, ships had to go to Africa to reach the Cape of Good Hope. This distance between London and Mumbai has now been reduced by 9600 km. Due to the existence of such a canal, the cost of many products has also come down.
It is the fastest mode of transport It is more suitable for the transportation of light precious and perishable materials. It is very suitable for hilly areas where roads and railways do not reach.
Pipelines are the most modern means of transport. Whose use is mostly; Occurs in the transportation of minerals, oil, natural gas, and water. There is a dense network of pipelines in Russia, Iran, Iraq, America, etc.
Telecommunication means the exchange of information in the world is shrinking due to modern telecommunication it is able to send our message anywhere in the world in a jiffy.
This technology is the reason that we have information; For example, you can send and receive voice, music, picture, letter, etc. Among its devices are: the telephone, radio, satellite, television, computer, and the Internet telegraph, which pioneered modern telecommunications.
Uses of Communications
1. Means of telecommunication; For example, radio, TV, and computers are also sources of education and entertainment. They inform us about national and international affairs.
2. The means of telecommunication have played a very important role in the development of world trade.
3. All these means of telecommunication have helped in uniting the people politically, economically, and culturally and brought a sense of national integration.
It is a means of informing and entertaining a person so that he can make a choice and make a decision that is based on a lot of facts. Formally people communicate on one to one basis.
It developed as a form of mass communication, as a means of conveying information to people in many places.
Means of Mass Communication
Radio, television, and newspapers are the most popular means of mass communication. Through these, millions of people can be contacted at the same time. Radio and television bring news, sports, entertainment, and education into our homes.
We get all these facilities through mass communication. They also warn us about bad weather warnings and other hazards, through which the leaders of the government stay in touch with the people.
The information age
At the beginning of the 20th century, the available amount of information was doubling approximately every 100 years. Due to the maximum use of computers, it is now doubling every four years.
The rate of information is bound to increase further as technological advances such as e-mail and the Internet have opened doors for other experiments and advancements.