Natural and Human Environment

Natural  and  Human  Environment

The environment is the basic support system of our life. It gives us air to breathe, water to drink, and land to live on.

It also provides us with natural resources like wood fuel, energy, minerals, etc. Most human activities affect the environment in one way or the other.

Natural resources

For example, forests, pastures, and fields have been badly damaged due to their excessive use. If we continue to do this, the damage will be irreparable and the consequences dire.

Meaning of Environment

“The word environment is derived from the French word ‘environ’ which means to surround. Thus environment literally means to surround. affect existence.

For example, if plants grow somewhere, their environment will be made up of water, land, air, heat, sunlight, and all the living things around it like plants, trees, animals, and human beings. All these elements are the environment of the plant.

environment inanimate or physical elements,


It is made up of other elements like water, land, air, heat, and sunlight as well as plants, animals, and human beings.

The environment is often divided into two types, natural and human, the first is nature given and the second is artificial:

The Natural Environment:
The Natural Environment:

The Natural Environment:

In this

natural greenery
Wild animals etc. come.

The Human Environment

It includes all things that are artificial; Such as settlements, residential sites, means of transport and communication, development of agriculture and industries, and other facilities.

The environment of the Earth

Plants, animals, and humans are affected by the natural environment of a particular place. Land can have mountains, plateaus, plains, and valleys. Water ranges from small ponds to large oceans including lakes and rivers.

The biotic environment includes humans, animals, plants, and other structures. These two components of the physical and biological environment are dependent on each other.

They cannot be separated. They are highly connected and interact with each other all the time. Any change in the physical or natural environment leads to change in the biotic environment.

Humans and other forms of living beings exist only on Earth because only Earth among other planets has such an environment that is helpful for the growth of life.

Earth’s temperature is neither extremely high like Mercury and Venus nor extremely low like Jupiter and Saturn. The variation in temperature depends on the Earth’s environment.

The air layer surrounding the earth contains oxygen which is essential for all forms of life. Wind also optimizes the temperature of the earth.

This adaptation keeps water in liquid form. Water gives rise to the life of animals, plants, and humans. Earth has a unique environment. This is the only planet where life exists in various forms.

Difference in Environment

The environment cannot be the same in all places. That’s why the physical and biological conditions are not the same in all places. For example–

The plains, ranges, climate, soil, natural greenery, wildlife, natural resources, etc. that make up the natural environment of a desert site will be different from the natural environment of an equatorial region. It will also be different from the natural environment of the tundra.

Change of Environment with Time

The environment also varies at different times. It is not permanent. It keeps on changing with time. The rate of change can be fast or slow. It depends on the factors that bring about change. Elements of the physical and biological environment keep changing.

So this change happens. Change can be seen everywhere,

For example, rocks get decomposed into soil. The properties of the earth’s surface keep on changing, and the weather and seasons also keep on changing.

The environment keeps on changing with time due to the movement of physical and biological elements. Earthquakes, volcanoes, fissures, and tremors are generated due to the internal movement of the earth.

These factors make a big difference in landforms in a short period of time. On the other hand, factors such as soil erosion by running water and wind cause slow and gradual changes in the environment.

Earlier there used to be an ocean in place of the Himalayas, which was called Techis Sagar, here there was a marine environment.

Relationship between Physical and Biological Environment

Man fulfills his basic needs from naturally available resources. When he exploits the resources, the circumstances change, and the physical environment changes.

In this way, the biological environment continues to influence the physical environment. From the study of the Pygmy race living in the Bay of Congo River, we find that their body size and

Lifestyles are governed by the physical environment, while their food and economic styles are governed by the bio-environment. Their life as a whole depends on both environments.

Excessive rainfall, dense forests, and high temperatures force them to live on trees. Due to the land being unusable for crops and the abundance of trees and animals, they have adopted the occupation of woodcutters and hunters.

In this way, the physical environment affects the biological environment. The biological environment is also affected by the physical environment.


The environment of animals and plants in which they live forms an ecosystem. An ecosystem is as small as a small pond and as large as a vast forest or an ocean.

Organisms in an ecosystem can be more or less self-sustaining. Almost all of their food energy comes from within the ecosystem.


Plants, which are called producers, make their own food with the help of sunlight and air. These pitas are food for birds and herbivorous animals, which are called primary consumers.

These birds and animals which eat the food of other birds and animals are called secondary consumers.

The dead remains of plants and animals are broken down by fungi and bacteria called Decomposers into useful substances which the plants take from the soil.

Biological/Ecological Balance

The elements of an ecosystem maintain a state of equilibrium called ecological equilibrium. Changes in the nature of these elements disturb this balance. This gives rise to a new ecosystem.

Environment affects living beings in many ways. Temperature affects the rate at which living things grow and multiply; Light, air, and soil type affect the growth of plants which are the main food of animals.


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