Water: Conservation, Water Cycle, Ocean

Water: Conservation, Water Cycle, Ocean

In this article, we will read about water and its sources and conservation. Water is essential for all living beings. 71 percent of our earth is covered with water.

Most of it is in the oceans and seas. Along with lakes, rivers, snowfields, and glaciers, the air also contains water in the form of water vapor. water moves from one place to another

Water Cycle

Water rises from the oceans and mixes in the air. From there it rains on land or at sea. Rainwater again reaches the oceans through rivers. This cycle of water is called the water cycle. It has neither a beginning nor an end. 

Evaporation and Precipitation

The rays of the sun fall on the water of the ocean, which causes evaporation. Ocean water turns into vapor due to the heat of the sun’s rays.

When water vapor reaches the upper atmosphere, condensation begins. It turns water vapor into tiny droplets or tiny crystals of ice

Who float in the air like clouds. Small drops or microscopic crystals of ice are large enough to fall on the earth as rain. When it rains a lot, some of the water seeps into the ground, and some runoff into streams. Effects of deforestation on the environment

And some remain on the surface as ponds and lakes. Rivers or streams flow on the surface of the earth and join the seas or oceans.

Ground Water

When rainwater is absorbed by the ground, it is called underground water. It is a very important source of peaches.

Transpiration Plants absorb underground water through the roots and return it to the air in the form of water vapor through the leaves. The return of water by this function of the plant is called transpiration.


Water moves very slowly in regions of low temperature because it is in the form of ice. The flowing ice river found in high latitudes and high altitudes is called a glacier.

Water Budget

The total amount of water found on earth in its various forms, that is water vapor or water, remains constant. Thus the earth is on a water budget where rainfall is an income while evaporation or transpiration is an expense.

In some areas, snow melts in the spring or heavy rains can bring more water to the area, which worsens the budget. But the opposite also happens.

In summer, evaporate spiration can increase, causing dry weather and limited water supply. Although we cannot change the earth’s water budget, we can control its use.

The use of large amounts of water by cities and industries returns it to rivers and oceans as waste. They often contain harmful substances.

Water Conservation

We cannot increase the amount of water because it is limited. We should use water carefully so that we get enough water to meet the needs of the growing population. Water conservation should be a part of our life.


The three basic components of the environment – ​​the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere are responsible for life on Earth. But the hydrosphere has been given special importance

Because life on Earth originated in water. Even today the number of organisms living in water is more than those living in other areas.

Water is indispensable for life. Pithe, creatures, and humans cannot live without water.

Along with carbon dioxide, water vapor is also equally responsible for controlling the temperature in the atmosphere. In this way, the influence of the hydrosphere falls on the atmosphere.

Due to the presence of water, the Earth appears to glow from space with a blue glow. That’s why the earth is also called the blue planet. It is also called the water planet because only Earth has a water system.

Fresh and Saline Water

The water of oceans is salty whereas the water of rivers, ponds, lakes, wells, etc. is clean and sweet. The water of oceans and seas is salty due to salts.

Due to the minerals brought by the rocks and rivers flowing in the seas, the salt increases there.

Causes of Salinity

  • The amount of salts varies from sea to sea. The salinity of seas and oceans is affected by freshwater uptake, evaporation, and ocean currents. When rivers discharge large amounts of fresh water, it remains low.

  • The rate of evaporation also affects the salinity of the oceans. Due to excessive evaporation, the percentage of salt in the oceans increases.

  • Therefore, the salinity of the seas is higher than the average due to their proximity to the hot regions.

  • Fresh water from the polar regions is brought by the currents to the equatorial region.

The saline water near the equator is distributed toward the polar regions.

Quantity of Salinity

The amount of salt present in ocean water is called salinity. Because these areas have many rivers and little rainfall, temperatures are generally high.

Salinity is higher in seas that are partially surrounded by regions such as the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf. The Dead Sea has maximum salinity.

Water Conservation

The ocean is the main water source on Earth. There are five oceans on earth

1. Pacific Ocean

2. Atlantic Ocean

3. Indian Ocean

4. Arctic Ocean

5. Antarctic Ocean

Located in the middle of the West Bay. It is the largest ocean of the earth which covers one-third of the earth. Its average depth is 5000 meters. There are about 20000 islands in the Pacific Ocean.

Atlantic Ocean

It is the second largest ocean of the earth which covers one-sixth of the earth. About half of the Earth’s surface is covered by the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The average depth of the Atlantic Ocean is 4000 meters. It has very few islands.

 Indian Ocean

It is the third largest ocean in the world which extends from southern India to the continent of Antarctica. Its average depth is 4000 meters. It covers about 14.6 parts of the earth.

There are many big and small islands in this ocean in the southern part of Asia. Madagascar is the largest island in the Indian Ocean. goes because it is northern

Arctic Ocean

It is the smallest ocean in the world. It is also called the northern ocean, it surrounds the pole from all sides. Its water remains accumulated throughout the year.

Antarctic Ocean

The sea area around the Antarctic continent is called the Antarctic Ocean. In fact, it is made up of the southern edges of the Pacific,

Atlantic and Indian Oceans, so many geologists do not consider it an ocean. It is also called the South Polar Ocean.

Characteristics of ocean water

1. The ocean controls the temperature of the land through ocean currents.

2. Ocean water, a reservoir of sources; Like fossil fuel, seafood, metals

3. Ocean water acts as a medium of transpiration.

4. Ocean water can also be used in electricity generation.

Circulation of Ocean Water

The water of oceans and seas never rests. It keeps on increasing. Ocean water maintains three types of motion


Waves are said to be up and down on the surface of the ocean water. Waves arise due to many reasons. A drag produced by blowing air is an important factor in the movement of waves.

Due to this the water rises and falls in a wave. The raised part of the wave is called the crest and the lower part is called the trough.

Waves do not move water parallel to them. Weather conditions also determine the magnitude of waves. Storm waves are very high and destructive.

Cyclones generate very high waves during the summer months. When more than one cyclone hits parts like the East Bay of India, there is a huge loss of life and property.


The alternate rise and fall of seawater is called tide. This is due to the gravitational force of the moon.

Kinds of Tide

High Tides 

When the level of seawater is highest, it is called high tide.

Low Tides

 When the level of seawater is lowest, it is called low tide.

Spring Tides

When the ebb tide is of a higher magnitude than normal, it is called spring ebb tide.

Spring tide comes when Sun, Earth, and Moon are in the same line. It falls on the full moon and new moon days.

Neap Tides

Spring tide comes when Sun, Earth, and Moon are in the same line. It falls on full moon and new moon days.

Importance of  Tides

 Sea Navigation

At the time of high spring tide, the depth of the areas near the bay increases, and large ships come into the port. Kandla in Gujarat and Diamond Harbor in West Bengal function only because of tidal action.

River Navigation

Tidal ebb also makes rivers navigable as the depth of the river also increases at the time of high ebb tide.

Preventing Silting of  Harbors Tides

prevent siltation of harbors by removing silt brought by rivers.

Generation of Electricity

Tidal Indian currents are harnessed for the generation of electricity. The world’s first electricity generation station was started in France in 1966.

Its 24 generators are used to generate 240000 kilowatts of electricity. They catch relatively more fish from the sea during low tide.

Ocean Currents Ocean currents are said to flow in a certain direction on a large scale of ocean water, like rivers in the ocean.

Ocean currents are thousands of km long and sometimes 200 km wide. Water in a stream moves at a speed of 2 to 10 km per hour.

Upwelling When the amount of water flowing on the surface of the ocean is slow and shallow, it is called upwelling. The speed of runoff is 1 to 3 km per day.

Kinds of Currents

Warm Currents

They originate near the equator and flow toward the poles.

Cold Currents

They originate in high latitudes and flow towards the equator.

 Causes of Ocean Currents

The difference in Density of Sea Water

Variations in density, temperature, and salinity of seawater occur in ocean water.

Prevailing Winds

Strong winds blow continuously in a particular direction and drag the surface water due to friction. It produces ocean currents.

Rotation of Earth Around its Axis

It also produces currents in the ocean.

Influence of Ocean Currents

Ocean currents affect the climate, agriculture, and economic activities of the Gulf regions and other islands near which they flow.



The warm current warms the climate. For example, the Kuroshiya Current of the Pacific Ocean in Japan and the Gulf Stream of the Atlantic Ocean modify the climate in the eastern part of America.

Free From Ice

Warm currents keep the ports of the polar regions free of ice even in winter. For example, the Norwegian Gulf in the Arctic Circle remains ice-free even in winter due to the North Atlantic Drift.


On the other hand, the Labrador Gulf remains frozen due to the cold Labrador current.

Amount of  Rainfall

Currents affect the amount of rainfall a country receives. Countries affected by warm currents receive more rainfall because the winds passing over them absorb a lot of moisture.

Similar rains occur in Eastern America, Ireland, and Britain. On the other hand, the Atacama desert of South America remains hot

Because the winds blowing over the cold currents cannot absorb the moisture. Partly also applies to other deserts.

Production of Plankton

Plankton are microscopic marine organisms that are food for fish. The mixing of warm and cold currents helps in the production of plankton. Plankton areas are the largest fish-producing areas in the world.

Creation of Fog

The mixture of warm and cold currents produces dense fog in that area. This is extremely dangerous for ships as visual clarity is reduced.

One such area is near Newfoundland where the warm Gulf Stream meets the cold Labrador Current.


Currents affect transport, as a ship going farther from the current will necessarily go faster. This can save time and fuel.

Melting Icebergs

Glaciers can be dangerous for ships. The warm ocean helps them melt.



2 replies on “Water: Conservation, Water Cycle, Ocean”

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